Absolute Reference


This is the position of a cell[2] that when a formula using it is copied will always refer to that cell.

To make an absolute reference[1] to a cell use the $ symbol before the row[3] or column[4] name.

For example when copied:

  • $B$4 will always reference cell B4
  • B4 will change whenever it is copied. If you copy one row down and one column across the B will change to a C and 4 will change to a 5
  • $B4 will only change the row. If you copy one row down and one column across the B will stay as B and 4 will change to a 5
  • B$4 will only change the row. If you copy one row down and one column across the B will change to a C and 4 will stay as a 4
Terms definitions
1. absolute reference. This is the position of a cell that when a formula using it is copied will always refer to that cell. To make an absolute reference to a cell use the $ symbol before the row or column name. For example when copied: $B$4 will always reference cell B4 B4 will change whenever it is […]
2. cell. A single square that can contain data in a spreadsheet. It is referred to by its cell reference which is made up of its row and column index. e.g. B4 will be the cell where the second column (B) and the forth row (4) meet. Hence B4
3. row. A horizontal series of cells in a spreadsheet. Usually represented by a number e.g. A3 is in row 3.
4. column. A vertical series of cells in a spreadsheet. Usually represented by a letter. e.g. B4 is in column B (the second column).